The Law of Cyberspace: Course Syllabus

Section 1

Introduction

Section 2

Course Syllabus

Section 3

Recommendations

 

 

 

 

 

Section 1: Introduction

The Law of Cyberspace Course Outline contains the Table of Contents of the course-book available at the UBC Faculty of Law Distribution Centre. 

 

While many of the articles are available On-line, the course-book includes the issues to be addressed in class and in the articles.  As well the articles have been edited for the Seminar purposes.

 

Last minute changes may result in discrepancies between the On-line and the Course-book Table of Contents.  Rely on the Course-book Table of Contents to be most reliable and use the On-line version as only a rough guide. 

 

Please see the Course Syllabus for the Weekly Readings.

 

Section 2: Course Syllabus

THE LAW OF CYBERSPACE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page:

 

PREFACE

 

Joseph Weiler, “Introduction to the Law of Cyberspace” (1999). ………….……….….i

 

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO

THE LAW OF CYBERSPACE

 

INTRODUCTION………..…………………………………………………………………….1 001

               

Howard Rheingold, "Introduction", The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the

Electronic Frontier (Harper Perennial, 1994). ……………………………….……..1 001

               

UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNET…………………………………..………………………1 010

               

ACLU v. Reno - Findings of Fact, 929 F. Supp.824 (ED Pa. 1996). ……………….1 010

 

Gerry Miller, et al, "Regulation of the Internet: A Technological Perspective",

Industry Canada Report (March 1999), {http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSI/it/005082_e.pdf},

pp. 7-30, 87-92. .…………………………………………………………………..….…..1 022

           

 

CHAPTER TWO: JURISDICTION TO REGULATE THE INTERNET

 

I.                     INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………….2 001

 

Franηoise Bertrand, "Speech: Notes for an address on the occasion of the release

of the Report on New Media", Canadian Radio-television and

Telecommunications Commission: Ottawa, ON (17 May 1999). …………………….2 002

 

REGULATORY APPROACHES …………………………………………………………………..2 007

               

Llewellyn Joseph Gibbons, "No Regulation, Government Regulation, or

Self-Regulation: Social Enforcement or Social Contracting for Governance

in Cyberspace", Cornell Journal of  Law and Public Policy (vol. 6:475 1997). …..2 008

 

ONE CYBER-JURISDICTION? ………………………………………………………2 023

               

David R. Johnson and David G. Post, "Law and Borders-- The Rise of Law in

Cyberspace" (May 1996), {www.cli.org/X0025_LBFIN.html}. ..……….……...…...2 024

 

JURISDICTION IN CYBERSPACE: REGULATION IN REAL TIME ………………………..…2 056

 

Ogilvy Renault, "Jurisdiction and the Internet: Are Traditional Rules Enough?",

Uniform Law Conference of Canada (July 1998),

{www.law.ualberta.ca/alri/ulc/current/ejurisd.htm}. …………...………………..……2 057

 

Braintech, Inc. v. Kostiuk (1999 BCCA 0169). …………………...…………………..2 072

 

Carl S. Kaplan, "AOL Subscribers Can Be Sued in Virginia, Judge Rules",

The New York Times: Cyber Law Journal (11 June 1999), {www.nytimes.com}. ..…2 085

 

THE CANADIAN REGULATORY APPROACH: CAN CYBERSPACE BE

REGULATED AS TELECOMMUNICATIONS OR BROADCASTING ……….2 089

               

Michael S. Koch, "Square Pegs and Round Holes: CRTC Regulation

of the Internet", Smith Lyons (1996), {http://www.SmithLyons.ca/it/crtc}. ………..2 089

 

Canadian Association of Broadcasters, "Phase II Submission of the Canadian

Association of Broadcasters to the CRTC New Media Hearing" (2 Nov. 1998). …..2 113

 

SOCAN, "Second Submission to The CRTC New Media Review" (2 Nov. 1998). ..2 145

 

Astral Broadcasting Group, "New Media: Call for Comments – Executive

Summary" (1 October 1998). …………………………………………………………2 159

 

Canadian Association of Internet Providers, "CRTC 1998-82 – New Media

Proceeding Phase 2 Comments - Executive Summary" (2 November 1998). ………...2 162

 

ISP Group, "Phase 2 Comments - Executive Summary" (2 November 1998). ..…..… 2 164

 

Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, "The Report

on New Media", Ottawa, ON (17 May 1999). ……………………………………..…2 166

 

Simon Tuck, "Internet is regulated enough, CRTC says", The Globe and Mail

 (18 May 1999). ……………………………………………………………………….2 190

 

Natalie Southworth, "Asper criticizes CRTC over TV restrictions", The Globe

and Mail (18 May 1999). ……………………………………………………………..2 192

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN CYBERSPACE: CRIMINAL REGULATION OF PORNOGRAPHY

 

I.              INTRODUCTION TO OBSCENITY AND THE INTERNET …….……………3 001

 

Industry Canada: Information and Communications Technologies, Internet Content

Related Liability Study: Criminal Code and the Internet Sec. 2.1 by M. Racicot,

M.S. Hayes, A.R. Szibbo, & P. Trudel (17 March 1997) {http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/it03117e_pr115.sgml}. ……………………………….3 002

 

B.T. Bilstad & C. Godward, "Obscenity and Indecency on the Usenet: The Legal

And Political Future of Alt.Sex.Stories" (1996) 2 Harv. J. Comp. -Mediated Comm.

{http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol2/issue2/bilstad.html}. ……………..……………...3 005

 

II.                   THE U.S.A. LEADS THE WAY IN ENACTING NEW CRIMINAL

STATUTORY REGULATION OF INTERNET CONTENT ………………...…3 010

(i) Communications Decency Act of 1996 ………………………………...….3 010

 

M.C. Alexander, “Jurisdiction and the MILLER Standard” (1998) 8 Seton

Const. L. J. 675 ………….…………………………………………………………...3 010

 

M.A.S. Guth, “Prosecution of Obscenity on Computer Networks” (1997) 37

Jurimetrics J. 235. …………………………………………………………………….3 012

 

J. Gruenwald, “Senate Measures Would Limit Minors’ Access to ‘Cyberporn’”

56:11 Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report (14 March 1998) 662. ……..……….3 016

 

N.M. Semmel, "Talking Back to Cyber-Mom: Challenging the Communications

Decency Act of 1996" (1998) 14 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Hum. Rts. 533.  .………………….3 017

 

Reno v. ACLU, 117 S.Ct. 2329 (1997). ………………………………….………….3 036

 

C.W. Ramsey, "Burning a Global Village to Roast a Pig: The CDA of 1996 is Not

'Narrowly Tailored' in Reno v. ACLU," (1997) 32:3 Wake Forest L. Rev. 1317. ….…3 047

 

L. Lessig, “What Things Regulate Speech: CDA 2.0 vs. Filtering” (1998)

38 Jurimetrics J. 629. ……………………………………………………………….…3 054

 

J. Gruenwald, "Congress Finds No Easy Answers to Internet Controversies"

Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report 56:5 (31 January 1998) 237. ………………3 061

 

A.      Goldsmith "Sex, Cyberspace, and the Communications Decency Act:

The Argument for an Uncensored Internet (1997) 3 Ut. L. Rev. 843. ……………….3 069

 

(ii)           Child Online Protection Act……………………………………..….….3 076

 

C.S. Kaplan, "A Regretful Tone in Judge's Decision on Internet Pornography"

The [New York] Times (5 February 1999) Cyber Law Journal {http:www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/02/cyber/cyberlaw/05law.html}. ………….3 076

 

                ACLU v. Reno No. CIV. A 98-5591 (E.D. Penn. 1999). …………….……………....3 081

 

(iii)          Other American Legislation……………………………………………3 091

 

G. Flagg, “Senate Committee Approves Filtering Bill” 29:4 American Libraries

 (1 April 1998) 13. ……………………………………………………………………3 091

 

B.       Karim, “ALA Sues to block Net censorship” American Libraries

(14 January 1997). ………………………………………..………………………….3 093

 

M. Zeigler, "NY Internet Pornography Law Upheld" (22 June 1999)

New York Law Journal. ……………………….…………………………………….3 094

 

 

CANADA: REGULATING THE PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION,

AND POSSESSION OF PORNOGRAPHY UNDER THE CRIMINAL

CODE: THE NEW CHALLENGES POSED BY THE INTERNET ….…….…3 096

 

R. v. Butler, [1992] 1 S.C.R. 452. …………………………………………………..3 097

 

T. Zillich, “Internet detective warns parents of on-line dangers” Westender

 (8 January 1998) 6. ……………………………………………………………….3 115

 

Ian Mulgrew, “Vancouver’s Web of sin” The [Vancouver] Sun

 (8 November 1997) B4. …………….……………………………………………3 116

 

Canadian Press, “Internet blurs issue of possessing sex images”

The [Vancouver] Sun (26 May 1997) A9. ………………..………………………3 119

 

R. v. Pecciarich (1995), 22 O.R. (3d) 748 (Ont. Ct. (Prov. Div.)). ……….……...3 120

 

R. v. Hurtubise, [1997] BCJ No. 40 (BCSC). ………………………………….…3 122

 

 

INTERNATIONAL ISSUES AND INITIATIVES …………………………...3 128

 

UNESCO, “Sexual Abuse of Children, Child Pornography and

Paedophilia on the Internet: An International Challenge”

Introduction to Expert Meeting, Paris (18-19 January 1999). ………….………..3 129

 

R. Silverman, “Singapore Targets Internet Obscenity” 2:16

Interactive Age: News in Review (5 June 1995) 35. ……………………………..3 138

 

Y. Akdeniz, “The Regulation of Pornography and Child

Pornography on the Internet” (1997) 1 J. Info. L. & Tech.  {http://elj.warwick.ac.uk/jilt/internet/97_1akdz/}. …………………….………..…3 139

 

 

FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION ………………….……….……………..……...3 147

 

C.       MacKinnon, "Vindication and Resistance: A Response to the

Carnegie Mellon Study of Pornography in Cyberspace" (1995) 83

Georgetown L. J. 1959. ……………………………………………………………3 148

 

B. Quistgaard, "Pornography, Harm, and Censorship: A Feminist

(Re)Vision of the Right to Freedom of Expression" 52 U.T. Fac.

L. Rev. {http://www.law-lib.utoronto.ca/law-review/utlr52-1/quist.htm}. ……..…3 154

 

P. Johnson, "Pornography Drives Technology: Why Not to Censor the

Internet" {http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v49/no1/johnson.html#N_1_.}. ..3 175

 

Z. Margulis, "Canada's Thought Police" 3.03 Wired Magazine (March 1995) {http://www.efc.ca/pages/wired-3.03.html}. ……………………………………….3 181

 

C.J. Feola, “Couch potato decision-making: Do you want Bart Simpson to

choose what you see?” Quill Magazine (September 1997)

{http://spj.org/foia/online/onmain2.htm}. ………………………………….……….3 189

 

E. Espe, "Group Warns of Potential for Net Censorship" 16:23 Business

Journal Serving San Jose & Silicon Valley (5 October 1998) 1. ……..…………….3 192

 

M. Meyer, "A Bad Dream Comes True in Cyberspace" 127:2 Newsweek

(8 January 1996) 65. ………………………………………………….……………..3 195

J. Katz, "The Rights of Kids in the Digital Age" 4.07 Wired  {http://versaggi.net/ecommerce/articles/kids.htm} ………………………….………3 197

 

K. Miller, "As Confused As Ever" Computers in Libraries (1 March 1998) 6. …..…..3 208

R. v. Sharpe (13 January 1999) New Westminster X050427 (B.C.S.C.). ………….…3 210

R. v. Sharpe (30 June 1999) Vancouver CA025488 (B.C.C.A.). ……………………..3 224

 

CAN THE LAW REGULATE VIRTUAL SEX? …………………………….…….3 237

 

J. Wallace & M. Mangan (contributor) "A Stalker in Cyberspace" Sex,

Laws, and Cyberspace (New York: Henry Holt, 1996) at 63. ……………………..…3 238

 

D.J. Nahikian, "Learning to Love "The Ultimate Peripheral" - Virtual

Vices Like "Cyberprostitution" Suggest A New Paradigm to Regulate

Online Expression" (1996) 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 779. ……….…….3 247

 

 

OTHER PERSPECTIVES ……….………………………………………….……...3 260

 

J. Wilkins, "Protecting Our Children From Internet Smut" 57: 5 Humanist

(September/October 1997) 4. ……………………………………….…………………3 260

 

J. Curiel, "Cyberporn vs. Censorship" 733 The Advocate (13 May 1997) 51. …..……3 264

 

R.P. George, "Making Children Moral: Pornography, Parents, and

the Public Interest" (1997) 29 Ariz. St. L.J. 569. …………………………………..…3 267

 

P. de Marneffe, "Is it Fair to Adults to Make Children Moral?:

Response to Robert P. George" (1997) 29 Ariz. St. L.J. 583. ………………………..3 274

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR: FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

IN CYBERSPACE: CIVIL PROTECTION

FROM ONLINE DISSEMINATION OF HATE

                INTRODUCTION ……………………..……………………………………………4 001

I.              DEFAMATION ……………………………..………………………………………4 002

 

Jennifer Jannuska, "To Shoot the Messenger? A Canadian Approach to

Libel and the On-Line Service Provider", Legal Group for the Internet

in Canada (1997), {http://catalaw.com/logic/docs/jj-libel.html}. …..….……………..4 003

 

Janet McFarland, "Istar fights Phillip court order to list clients: Files

motion to stop firm from using data", The Globe and Mail (24 July 1998). …………4 018

 

Zeran v. America Online Inc (U.S. 4th Cir. C.A. No. 97-1523). ……………………..4 020

 

Blumenthal v. Drudge and AOL (U.S.D.C., Dist. Ct., Civil Action No. 97-1968). ...…4 031

 

Courtney Macavinta, "Court rejects Net defamation suit", CNET News

(31 March 1998). ………………………………………………………………………4 048

 

II.            PROMOTION OF HATRED …………..………………………..……………..…….4 049

 

Daniel Shap, "Hate Crimes in the Electronic Media", The Legal Group

for the Internet in Canada (1994), {http://catalaw.com/logic.docs.ds-hate.htm}. ..4 050

 

Reuters, "Man to plead guilty for email hate crime", CNET News (1 February 1999). 4 068

 

Reuters, "Mistrial declared in hate case", CNET News (22 November 1997). ………4 069

 

Henry Hess, "Racists use Internet to recruit, spread propaganda",

The Globe and Mail (26 November 1998). ……………………………………………..4 070

 

Ross Howard, "Notorious Internet service closes", The Globe and Mail

(28 April 1998). ………………………………………………………………………...4 071

 

III.           REGULATION OF THE INTERNET: STATE- OR SELF-IMPOSED? ………...4 073

 

Donald F. Theall, "Canada, Censorship, and the Internet", The Legal Group for

the Internet in Canada (1997), {http://catalaw.com/logic/docs/dt-censor.html}. …4 074

 

Amy Harmon, "Worries About Big Brother at America Online",

The New York Times (31 January 1999). ………………….……………………………4 099

 

Pamela Mendels, "Court Tackles New Angle on Library Internet Filtering",

The New York Times (4 December 1998). ………………………………………..……4 104

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE: PRIVACY & ENCRYPTION

IN INTERNET COMMUNICATION

 

I.              INTRODUCTION TO PRIVACY AND ENCRYPTION …………………………5 001

 

E. Shaw, J. Westwood, & R. Wodell, "What's So Important About Privacy?" The

Privacy Handbook (Vancouver: B.C. Civil Liberties Assoc., 1994) at xv. …..……….5 002

 

E. Shaw, J. Westwood, & R. Wodell, "The Principle of Privacy" The

Privacy Handbook (Vancouver: B.C. Civil Liberties Assoc., 1994) at xx. …………...5 004

 

L. Rose, "Anonymity Online: Its Value and Its Social Costs," (June 1995) Legally

Online {http://boardwatch.internet.com/mag/95//jun/bwm45.html}. ……………….5 005

 

J.H. Johnson, "Private Personal Computing?" Legal Times (18 May 1999). …………5 010

 

 

II.                     CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS TO PRIVACY:

THE CANADIAN SCENE ……………………...…………………………….……5 014

               

Canadian Human Rights Commission v. Taylor [1990] 3 S.C.R. 892. .……………...5 014

 

Canadian Standards Assoc., Model Code for the Protection of

Personal Information (summary). …….…………………………………………..…..5 021

 

Bill C-54, An Act to support and promote electronic commerce by protecting

personal information that is collected, used or disclosed in certain circumstances,

by providing for the use of electronic means to communicate or record information

or transactions and by amending the Canada Evidence Act, the Statutory

Instruments Act and the Statute Revision Act, 1st Sess. 36th Parl., 1999 (summary).

(also printed in Section VIII)………….………………………………………………5 022

 

THE AMERICAN SCENE …………………………………………………………5 024

 

Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438 (1928). …………………………………….5 024

 

M.S. Dorney, "Privacy and the Internet" (1997) 19 Comm./Ent. L.J. 635. ..…………5 025

 

 

III.                   REDRESS AGAINST THE LOSS OF PRIVACY:

REGULATION CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE …………………….……………5 036

               

Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 18 U.S.C. §2701-2703. …………………..5 037

 

Timothy R. McVeigh v. William Cohen, No. 98-116 (U.S.D.C. D.C., 1998). ……….5 042

 

J. Karl, "AOL Criticizes Navy for Sailor Dismissal" U.S. News

21 January 1998) {http://www.cnn.com/US/9801/21/aol.react/}. ………….…………5 051

 

Associated Press, “Sailor, Navy Settle Gay Charge Suit” (12 June 1998). ………….5 052

 

IV.                  PROTECTING PRIVACY IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR:

THE AMERICAN SCENE ………………………………………………….……..5 055

 

A Bill: To regulate the use by interactive computer services of personally

identifiable information provided by subscribers to such services, 1st Sess.,

10th Con., U.S.A., 1997. ……………………………………………………………..5 056

 

P.P. Swire & R.E. Litan, "The Legal Context of the Privacy Directive," None of

Your Business (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1998 at 22-49. …………..5 064

 

Directorate General, Media Information Society and Data Protection,

Status of Implementation of Directive 95 {http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg15/en/media/dataprot/law/impl.htm}. …….……..……5 078

 

F. Cates, "Electronic Privacy in the Twenty-First Century" Privacy in the

Information Age (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution) at 102-132. ……………5 079

 

M.S. Culnan (Ph.D.), OPA Report on the Top 100: Executive Summary

(McDonough School of Business, Georgetown University, 1999). …………………5 095

 

M.S. Culnan (Ph.D.), Georgetown Internet Privacy Survey: Privacy Online in

1999: A Report to the Federal Trade Commission: Executive Summary

 (McDonough School of Business, Georgetown University, 1999). …………………5 096

 

ChaptersGLOBE.com, Privacy Agreement {http://www.chaptersglobe.com/}. …….5 099

 

amazon.com, Privacy Agreement {http://www.amazon.com/}. ………………….....5 102

 

amzaon.co.uk, Privacy Agreement {http://www.amazon.co.uk/}. …………….……5 104

 

V.            INTRODUCTION TO ENCRYPTION TECHNOLOGY ……………………..5 106

 

Task Force on Electronic Commerce, Cryptography Terms and

Definitions {http://e-com.ic.gc.ca/english/crypto/631d24.htm}. ………...……….…5 106

 

VI.           INTRODUCTION TO THE LEGAL ISSUES IN ENCRYPTION ……..….….5 108

 

J.P. Barlow, "Jackboots on the Infobahn" (San Francisco: 1994)

{http://www.wired.com/}. …………………………………………………………..5 109

 

C. Kuner, "Legal Aspects of Encryption in the Internet" (1996)

25:4 International Business Lawyer at 186. ………………………………………..5 112

 

N.W. Allard & D.A. Kass, "Law and Order in Cyberspace:

Washington Report," 19 Hastings Comm./Ent. L.J. 3 (1997) 563. …………………5 117

 

Bernstein v. U.S. Department of Justice et. al., No. 97-16686

(U.S.C.A., Ninth Cir. 1999). …………………………………..……………………5 125

 

VII.         DIGITAL SIGNATURES …………………………………………….….……….5 147

 

                R. Cauley, Digitally Yours {http://www.ipmag.com/acauley.html}. ….….……..….5 148

 

                Omitted …………………………………………………………………….5 153 – 5 156

 

K. Murphy, “Law Group Formulates Uniform Rules for Online

Transactions”  Webweek, v.4 i.5 (17 March 1997). ……………………….………..5 158

 

House of Commons, Select Committee on Trade and Industry,Seventh Report:

"Building Confidence in Electronic Commerce”: The Government's Proposals. ….5 162

 

 

VIII.        CANADA'S POSITION ON ENCRYPTION AND DIGITAL SIGNATURES ..5 173

 

J. Manley, Minister of Industry, Speaking Notes for Presentation (National Press

Club: Canada's Cryptography Policy, 1 October 1998) {http://ecom.ic.gc.ca/english/speeches/42d3.htm}. …………………………………5 174

 

Task Force on Electronic Commerce, Canada Moves to Promote E-Commerce:

Personal Privacy Protectrion and Electronic Signatures Recognized in Law

 (Ottawa: 1 October 1998) {http://e-com.ic.gc.ca/english/releaeses/41d7.htm}. …….5 181

 

Bill C-54, An Act to support and promote electronic commerce by protecting

                personal information that is collected, used or disclosed in certain circumstances,

by providing for the use of electronic means to communicate or record information

or transactions and by amending the Canada Evidence Act, the Statutory

Instruments Act and the Statute Revision Act, 1st Sess. 36th Parl., 1999

(summary). (also printed in Section II) ……………………………………………..5 183

 

Department of Justice: Canada, Adjusting the legal framework for electronic

commerce (1 October 1998), {http://canada.justice.gc.ca/News/Communiques/1998/attback1_en.html}. ……….5 184

 

 

J. Shallitt & D. Jones, Electronic Frontier Canada, Statement on

Canadian Cryptography Policy (14 August 1997) {http://www.efc.ca}. …………5 186

 

J.P.R. Murray, Commissioner, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Response to

Industry Canada on: A Cryptography Policy Framework for Electronic Commerce

 - Building Canada's Information Economy and Society (Ottawa: 21 April 1998). ..5 193

 

 

CHAPTER SIX: ONLINE GAMING

 

A.      INTRODUCTION TO THE CHAPTER

 

I.               SCOPE ………………………….…………………………………………………….6 001

 

C. R. Janower, "Gambling on the Internet," 2 (2d) (ii) Journalof Computer

Mediated Communication (September 1996) {http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol2/issue2/jcmc223.htm}. ……………………..……6 001

 

I. Mulgrew, "Net Gambling A Legal Mess" The [Montreal] Gazette

(16 July 1997) {http://offshore.efc.ca/pages/media/gazette.16jul97.html}. ………..6 002

 

II.            THE SOCIAL COSTS OF ONLINE GAMING ……………………………..….6 003

 

U.S. Sen. J. Kyl, "Gambling on the Internet," Jon Kyl U.S. Senator

for Arizona News: My Weekly Column (13 March 1998) {http://www.senate.gov/~kyl/cgambl.htm}. …………………………………………6 003

 

U.S. Sen. J. Kyl, "Senate Endorses Kyl Bill Prohibiting Internet Gambling With

90-10 Vote," Jon Kyl U.S. Senator for Arizona News: My Weekly Column

(23 July, 1998){http://www.senate.gov/~kyl/pintgamp.htm}. ………………………6 005

 

C.R. Janower, "Gambling on the Internet," 2 (2d) (ii) Journal of

Computer Mediated Communication (September 1996) {http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol2/issue2/jcmc223.htm}. ……………….……...…..6 006

 

 M. LeBlanc, The Impact Of On-Line Gambling And Gaming

Services On Youth (Paper Prepared for MLB Consulting) (Aust.). ……………..…..6 008

 

 

B.            THE ATTEMPT TO REGULATE ONLINE GAMING

 

I.                     CANADIAN AND INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS ……………………………..6 010

 

T. Hamilton, "Fuzzy dice" Globe Technology (3 December 1998) {http://www.globetechnology.com/gam/News/19981203/TWGAMB.html}. ……..6 010

 

 

M.A. Garber, "Internet Gaming Law in Canada," 2:2 Gaming L. Rev. (1998). ..….6 016

 

British Columbia Gaming Policy Secretariat, Report on Gaming Legislation and

Regulation in British Columbia by S. H. Sams (ed.) (Victoria: Queen's Printer,

Jan. 1999) {http://www.ei.gov.bc.ca/Directory/GamingPolicy/paper/default.htm}. …6 018

 

Wired News Report, "Europe Cautious on Net Gambling" Wired

Magazine (24 July 1998) {http://www.wired.com/}. …………………………………6 019

 

J.E. Hogan, "World Wide Wager: The Feasibility of Internet

Gambling Regulation," 8 Seton Hall L. J. 815. ……………………………………….6 019

 

 

II.                   UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: WHO HAS JURISDICTION

TO REGULATE GAMING IN CYBERSPACE? ………………………………...6 021

 

A.M. Cabot & K.D. Doty, "Internet Gambling: Jurisdiction

Problems and the Role of Federal Law" 1:1 Gaming L. Rev. (1997). ……………….6 021

 

R. Raysman & P. Brown, "Cyber-Casinos: Gambling Meets the Internet," N.Y.L.J.

(12 August 1997) {http://www.ljextra.com/internet/0812cycasinos.html}.…………6 025

 

K.A. Freeling & R. E. Wiggins, "Despite tough talk from prosecutors, and despite

indictments of those charged with Internet gambling, no court has held that U.S.

law prohibits such betting." The National Law Journal (30 March 1998), B07 {http://www.ljx.com/internet/0330gamble.html}. ………………….….……………6 029


M.G. Tratos, Gaming on the Internet (Las Vegas: 1996)

{http://www.lviplaw.com/gaming2.html}. ………………………..…………………6 031

 

T.W. Bell, Dir. Telecommunications & Technology Studies, Cat Inst., "Internet

Gambling: Prohibition v. Legalization," (Testimony before the National Gambling

Impact Commission, Chicago, 21 May 1998) {http://www.ngisc.gov/}. …………...6 033

 

J. Goldsmith, "What Internet Gambling Legislation Teaches About

Internet Regulation" 32 Int'l L. 1115. ………………………….……………………6 034

 

 

III.                 STATE LEVEL ATTEMPTS TO REGULATE GAMING

IN CYBERSPACE: LEGISLATION AND CASE LAW ……………………….6 036

 

Minnesota v. Granite Gate Resorts 568 N.W. 2d 715 (Minn. C.A. 1997)

{http://zeus.bna.com/e-law/cases/granite.html}. ……………………………………6 037

 

Nixon v. Interactive Gaming & Communications Corp., Case

No. CV97-7808, (Jackson County, Kansas City, Miss. Cir. 1997)

{http://www.bna.com/e-law/cases/intergame.html}. ………………………….……6 043

 

Bill S.474, Internet Gambling Prohibition Act, 1st Sess., 105th Con.,

U.S. 1997 {http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c105:S.474:}. …………………..6 049

 

J.T. Fojut, “Ace in the Hole: Regulation of Internet Service Providers Saves the

Internet Gambling Prohibition Act of 1997,” 8 DePaul-LCA J. Art & Ent. L. 155. …6 051

 

"Indian Gaming Officials Oppose Kyl Bill" Rolling Good Times Online

(13 June 1999)

{http://www.rgtonline.com/index.cfm?BodyLoc=/newspage/artlisting.cfm/3387}. ...6 054

 

 

IV.                THE JURISDICTIONAL CHALLENGES REVISITED …………………….....6 055

 

A.M. Cabot & K.D. Doty, "Internet Gambling: Jurisdiction Problems

and the Role of Federal Law" 1:1 Gaming L. Rev. (1997). ………………………….6 056

 

R. Raysman & P. Brown, "Cyber-Casinos: Gambling Meets the Internet," N.Y.L.J.

(12 August 1997) {http://www.ljextra.com/internet/0812cycasinos.html}. …..……..6 059

 

C. R. Janower, "Gambling on the Internet," 2 (2d) (ii) Journal of Computer

Mediated Communication (September 1996) {http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol2/issue2/jcmc223.htm}. ………………..………….6 059

 

A.R Stein, "The Unexceptional Problem of Jurisdiction in

Cyberspace," 32 Int'l L. 1167. ..…………………………………………….…….…..6 060

 

J.E. Hogan, "World Wide Wager: The Feasibility of Internet

Gambling Regulation," 8 Seton Hall L. J. 815. …………………………………..…..6 061

 

British Columbia Gaming Policy Secretariat, Report on Gaming

Legislation and Regulation in British Columbia by S. H. Sams (ed.)

(Victoria: Queen's Printer, January 1999) 9.5 {http://www.ei.gov.bc.ca/Directory/GamingPolicy/paper/default.htm}. ……..………6 063

 

 

C.  HOW TO REGULATE ONLINE GAMING: POLICY OPTIONS

 

I.                     TO BAN OR NOT TO BAN ………………………..………………………………6 064

 

T.W. Bell, Dir. Telecommunications & Technology Studies, Cat Inst., "Internet

Gambling: Prohibition v. Legalization," (Testimony before the National Gambling

Impact Commission, Chicago, 21 May, 1998) {http://www.ngisc.gov/}. ……………6 064

 

C.A. Koegler, "Here Come the Cybercops 3: Betting on the Net",

22 Nova L. Rev. 545. ……………………..…………………………………………..6 065

 

A.M. Lessani, "How Much Do You Want to Bet That the Internet Gambling

Prohibition Act of 1997 is Not the Most Effective Way to Tackle the Problems

of Online Gambling?" UCLA Online Institute for Cyberspace Law and Policy

(May 1998) {http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/iclp/alessani.html}. ………………….…….6 067

 

 

II.                   HOW AND WHAT TO REGULATE ……………………………………….…….6 069

 

R. Clarke, "The Technical Feasibility of Regulating Gambling on the Internet,"

(Address to the Conference on Gambling Technology & Society: Regulatory

Challenges for the 21st Century, Rex Hotel, Sydney, Australia Point, 7-8 May

1998) {http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/gambling/index.html}. …………...…….6 070

 

British Columbia Gaming Policy Secretariat, Report on Gaming Legislation and

Regulation in British Columbia by S. H. Sams (ed.) (Victoria: Queen's Printer,

Jan. 1999) {http://www.ei.gov.bc.ca/Directory/GamingPolicy/paper/default.htm}. ...6 075

 

A.M. Cabot & K.D. Doty, "Internet Gambling: Jurisdiction Problems

and the Role of Federal Law" 1:1 Gaming L. Rev. (1997). ………………………….6 076

 

III.                 WHAT IS BEING DONE TODAY? ……………………….…………………….6 079

 

Provisions of the Interactive Gambling (Player Protection) Act Queensland,

Australia 1998. ………………………………….………………………………….6 079

 

Bill C-353, An Act to Amend the Criminal Code (Internet Lotteries) 2nd

Sess, 35th Parl., Canada, 1997 {http://www.dennismills.com/billc353.html}. …….6 081

 

 

 

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE LEGAL

ISSUES IN E-COMMERCE

 

 

                INTRODUCTION …………………………….…………………………….……..7 001

 

I.              CANADIAN APPROACH ………………………………………………..……….7 003

 

Dale A.J. Dietrich, "Legal Issues Affecting Canadian Based Electronic Commerce

Undertakings", IT Industry Series on Intellectual Property, Centre for Property

Studies U. of New Brunswick (7 May 1998), {www.SmithLyons.ca/it/econ}. ……..7 004

 

Industry Canada, "The Canadian Electronic Commerce Strategy" (1999),

{http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/virtual_hosts/e-com/english/ecom_eng.pdf}. ….…………..7 056

 

II.            U.S. DEVELOPMENTS ………………………………..…………………………..7 096

 

U.S. Department of Commerce, "The Emerging Digital Economy II"

(June 1999), {www.ecommerce.gov/ede/ede2.pdf}. …..…………………………….7 097

 

U.S. Government Working Group on Electronic Commerce, "First Annual

Report" (November 1998), {www.doc.gov/ecommerce/E-comm.pdf}. …………….7 112

 

III.           A EUROPEAN INITIATIVE …………………………………………………….7 143

 

E-Commerce Commission Communication, "A European Initiative in Electronic

Commerce - Executive Summary" (1997),

{www.cordis.lu/esprit/src/ecomcomx.htm}. ………………………………………..7 143

 

IV.           REAL TIME LITIGATION ……..……………………………………………….7 143

 

In the Matter of GeoCities, a corporation, U.S. Federal Trade

Commission (File No. 9823015). …………………………………………………...7 147

 

 

CHAPTER EIGHT: THE LAW OF

COPYRIGHT IN THE DIGITAL AGE

 

I.                     WHAT IS COPYRIGHT? ………………………………………………………...8 001

 

Strategis, "Guide to Copyright", Industry Canada, {http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/sc_mrksv/cipo/cp/cp_main-e.html}. ………………………8 002

 

 

II.                   Feelings of Inadequacy: Copyright in the Digital AgE ……8 014

                a) The Significance of Copyright in the Digital Information Age ….……….…….8 014

 

Jack Valenti, “If You Can’t Protect What You Own--You Don’t Own Anything:

Comments by Jack Valenti, President and C.E.O of the Motion Picture

Association of America before the Hearing Subcommittee on Court and

Intellectual Property on WIPO Copyright Treaties Implementation Act and

the Online Copyright Liability Limitation Act,” (16 Sept. 1997). ……………...……8 015

                b) Conceptual and Theoretical Problems …………………………………….…..…8 018

 

George S. Takach, “Computer Law” (Toronto: Irwin Law, 1998). ……….….………8 019

 

John Perry Barlow, “The Economy of Ideas: Everything You Know

About Intellectual Property is Wrong” Wired Magazine, (March 1994). .…..……..…8 025

 

Lance Rose, “The Emperor’s Clothes Still Fit Just Fine”, Wired News,

{http://www.wired.com/}. ……….……………………………………..………..…….8 039

                c) Direct and Practical Problems……………………………………………….……..8 044

 

                          (i) Infringement, Defenses and Remedies ………..…………………...…...8 044

 

Mark S. Hayes, “Internet Copyright Infringement in Canada”, Industry

Canada, {http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/it03023e.html}. ………..………………………8 045

 

                          (ii) Jurisdiction …………………………………………………………8 070

 

Barry Sookman, “Copyright and the Information Superhighway:

Some Issues to Think About (Part 1)”, 11 I.P.J. November 1997. ……………………..8 071

 

III.                 CASE STUDY: COPYRIGHT & MP3: THE MUSIC INDUSTRY ONLINE ……8 076

 

Dawn Kawamoto, “MP3 device makers win key court ruling”, CNet News.

(15 June 1999), {http://www.news.com/News/Item/o,4,37873,00.html}. …………….8 077

 

Nate Manchester, “MP3: The Nuts and Bolts”,

{http://www.hotwired.com/webmonkey}. ……………………………………………..8 079

 

Adam Powell, “MP3: Legal and Ethical Issues”,

http://www.hotwired.com/webmonkey. ……………………………………………….8 084

 

Adam Powell, "MP3: The Transformation of an Industry", 

{http://www.hotwired.com/webmonkey}. ……………………………………………..8 087

 

 

IV.                POLICY OPTIONS IN BALANCING THE INTERESTS IN

                CREATORS AND USERS OF ONLINE MUSIC ………………………………….8 089

 

Software Publishers Alliance, “Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) –

DRAFT Basic Summary”, {http://www.spa.org/gvmnt/iprt/dmcasumdraft.htm}. …...8 090

 

Avi Pollock, “Canadian Copyright and the Internet”,

{http://www.ampksoft.ca/compoly.htm}. ……………………………………………..8 094

 

                MORE ISSUES …………………………………………………………….……….8 107

 

V.                  THE FUTURE SOLUTION? ………………………………………….….……….8 108

 

Tom W. Bell, "Fair Use vs. Fared Use: The Impact of Automated Rights 

Management on Copyright's Fair Use Doctrine", 76 N. Carolina L. Rev. 557

(1998),  {http://members.aol.com/tomwbell/papers/FullFared.html}. ……....………8 109

 

 

CHAPTER NINE: TRADEMARKS &

DOMAIN NAMES IN CYBERSPACE

 

I.              INTRODUCTION ………………………………………..………..…….…….……9 001

 

Ira S. Nathenson, "Showdown at the Domain Name Corral: Property Rights

and Personal Jurisdiction over Squatters, Poachers and other Parasites",

58 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 911 (1997). …………………..………..….9 002

 

 

II.            THE AMERICAN APPROACH

 

"Network Solutions' Domain Name Dispute Policy" (25 February 1998),

{www.networksolutions.com/legal/dispute-policy.html}. ……………………………9 047

 

Sheldon H. Klein and Anthony V. Lupo, "'White Paper' Leaves

Some Domain Gray", The National Law Journal (29 June 1998). …….……….….…9 052

 

 

III.           THE CANADIAN APPROACH …………….………………………………..……9 057

 

Alan Gahtan, "A Site by Any Other Name: Domain Name Issues for Canadian

Organizations" (February 1997), {www.gahtan.com/alan/articles/domain2a.htm}. ...9 058

 

 

IV.           IS THE WIPO APPROACH THE WAY TO GO? ………………………………9 063

 

Francis Gurry, "Transcript of Press Conference by Mr. Francis Gurry, Assistant

Director General to Launch the Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name

Process" (3 May 1999), {http://wipo2.wipo.int/process/eng/PressConf.html}. ….…9 064

 

A.      Michael Froomkin, "A Commentary on WIPO's The Managementof Internet

Names and Addresses: Intellectual Property Issues" (17 May 1999),

 {www.law.miami.edu/~amf/commentary.htm}. ……………………………..……..9 073

 

 

CHAPTER TEN: THE LEGAL ISSUES INVOLVING LINKS,

FRAMES, METATAGS, AND CLICKWRAP LICENCES

 

A.      SHRINKWRAP & CLICKWRAP LICENCING

 

I.         INTRODUCTION TO SHRINKWRAP &

                CLICKWRAP LICENCING …………………………….……………………….10 001

 

A. Kask, Shrinkwrap & Click-wrap Licensing (1999). …………………………….10 001

 

II.                   COMMONWEALTH LAW ON SHRINKWRAP LICENCES ……………….10 001

 

A. Scott, "Will shrink-wrap licences stick?" 86:11 [U.K].

Law Society's Gazette (15 March 1989) 28. ……………………………….……….10 001

 

North American Systemshops Ltd. v. King et al., [1989] 27 C.P.R.

(3d) 367 (Alb. Q.B.). ……………………………………………...………………..10 004

 

Beta Computers (Europe) Ltd. v. Adobe Systems Ltd. [1995] (Outer House)

(Scot.). ………………………………………………………………………………10 009

 

III.                 CLICK-WRAP LICENCES UNDER AMERICAN LAW ………..……………10 013

 

R. Raysman & P. Brown "Clickwrap License Agreements" New York Law

Journal (11 August 1998) {http://www.ljx.com/internet/0811clickwrap.html}...10 013

 

ProCD, Inc. v. Matthew Zeidenberg and Silken Mountain

Web Services, Inc. No. 95-C-0671-C (U.S. Dis. W. Wisc. 1996). …………….……10 021

 

J. Rothstein Wolfson, "(Five) Questions People Always Ask About the Proposed

Article 2B of the Uniform Commercial Code" (Paper presented to the 14th Annual

Seminar on Computer Law, presented by Law Journal Seminars Press,

New York City, 1998) [unpublished]. …………..………………………………….10 024

 

National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, American Law

Institute, News Release, "NCCUSL to Promulgate Freestanding Uniform

Computer Information Transactions Act ALI and NCCUSL Announce that Legal

Rules for Computer Information Will Not Be Part of UCC" (7 April 1999) {http://www.nccusl.org/pressrel/2brel.html}. ……………..…………………….10 033

 

IV.                CLICK-WRAP AGREEMENTS UNDER CANADIAN LAW …………………10 033

 

S. Sigel & T. Ling, The Validity and Enforceability of Web-Wrap Agreements

in Canada and Assessing the Need for Legislation {http://www.bakerinfo.com/Publications/Documents/772_tx.htm}. …….……...….10 034

 

V.                  INTELLIGENT AGENCY: TECHNOLOGY PRESENTS YET

ANOTHER CHALLENGE ……………………………………………………….10 037

 

S. Levi & R. Sporn, "Can Programs Bind Humans to Contracts? 'Intelligent

agents' capable of shopping the Web and entering 'click wrap' pacts wreak

havoc with aged contract and agency laws" National Law Journal

(13 January 1997) {http://prod01.ljextra.com/internet/0113shrink.html}. ……..….10 038

 

B.            LINKING AND FRAMING

 

I.                     INTRODUCTION TO LINKING AND FRAMING …………………………..10 042

 

A. Kask, Linking & Framing Issues, (1999). ……………………………………...10 042

 

K. Beal, "The Potential Liability of Linking on the Internet: An

Examination of Possible Legal Solutions," (1998) B.Y.U. L. Rev. 703. …..……..10 042

 

II.                   CASES …………………………………………………………………….………10 078

 

"Newspapers File Framing Suit Against Web Site and Its Developer"

15: 2 Computer Law Strategist (June 1998) 8. …………………………………….10 079

 

Software Law Bulletin, "CA Judge Dismisses Copyright Claims

Based on Linking" 11:9 Cases (November 1998) 213. …………………………….10 079

 

"Claim that Framing Constitutes Copyright Infringement Survives Motion to

Dismiss" 15:10 The Computer Lawyer Current Developments;

Copyright/Internet 31.  ………………………..……………………………….……10 081

 

Futuredontics, Inc. v. Applied Anagramics, Inc., 152 F.3d 925

(9th Cir. (Cal.) 1998). ………………………………………………………….…….10 082

 

III.                 SAFEGUARDS AGAINST 'BEING FRAMED' ………………………..……….10 083

 

                K.E. Johnson, "Don't Get Framed" 4:8 The Internet Lawyer (August 1998). ………10 083

 

J.R. Kuester & P.A. Nieves, "Hyperlinks: A Form of Protected Expression?

A Georgia federal court implies a 1st Amendment 'right to link' defense to

infringement claims." National Law Journal (26 January 1998) C10. ....…………..10 084

 

IV.                CONTRACTUAL APPROACH ………………………………………………….10 089

 

R. K. Herrmann, "Why You Need Cross-Link Agreements" 2:10

Internet Newsletter Legal & Business Aspects (January 1998) 3. ………..…..…….10 089

 

C.            META-TAGS…………………………………………………………………..……10 092

 

A. Kask, "Meta-tags" (1999). ………………………………………………..………10 092

 

                M. O'Rourke, "Defining the Limits of Free-Riding (1998) 33 Gonz L. Rev. 277. ….10 092

 

                C. Macavinta, "Playboy wins piracy suit" CNET News.com (22 April 1998). ….…..10 123

 

Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Terri Welles No.98-CV-0413-K

(JFS) (U.S.D.C. (S.D. Calif.) 21 May 1998). ………………………………………...10 123

 

Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Terri Welles No. 98-55911, D.C. No.

CV-98-00413-K (9th Cir. (U.S.C.A.) 20 Oct. 1998). …………………………………10 130

 

 

CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE DARK SIDE OF

THE NET: COMPUTER CRIME & SPAM

 

I.                     INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER CRIME AND SPAM………………………11 001

 

II.                   COMPUTER CRIME AND CANADA …………………………………………….11 001

 

Royal Canadian Mounted Police, "What Is Computer and Telecommunication

Crime?"  Computer Crime (1998) {http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/html/cpu-cri.htm}.  ..11 001

 

Const. R. Hamel, "Computer Crime" (Address to the 16th Annual

Pacific-Rim-Computer Law Conference (1005199), 4 June 1999). …………………11 003

 

D. M. Cameron, "Criminal Law and IT" Juris Diction (1997) {http://www.jurisdiction.com/criminal.htm#other}. ………………………………..11 007

 

III.           HACKING …………………………………………………………………………11 015

             

                        S. Sabel, "Hackers, Crackers, and Phreaks (Oh My!)" (Address to the 16th

                        Annual Pacific-Rim-Computer Law Conference (1005199), 4 June 1999). …….….11 015

 

C. Steinberg, Notes on Address by S. Sabel to the 16th Annual

Pacific-Rim-Computer Law Conference (1005199), (4 June 1999). ………………..11 016

 

IV.           PRIVATE ATTEMPTS AT COMBATING ONLINE CRIME ……………….11 019

             

            K. Laidler, "The Agora" (Address to the 16th Annual Pacific-Rim-

            Computer Law Conference (1005199), 4 June 1999). ……………………………..11 019

 

T. Kelley, "In Northwest, Computer Security is a Private-Public

Effort" New York Times on the Web (12 March 1998). ……………………………11 020

 

P. Shukovsky, Associated Press:

(a)"High-tech group keeps eye out for cyber-threats" Seattle P.I.

(20 January 1998), B1.

(b) "Agora: Potential targets in Northwest pinpointed" Seattle P.I.

 (20 January 1998), B3. ……………………………………………………………11 023

 

V.            JUDICIAL AUTHORIZATION TO  "ENTER" AND

SEARCH A COMPUTER …………………………….………………………….11 024

             

            P. Hourihan, RCMP, Sask. Commercial Crime Sec., "Searches and the

            Internet" RCMP: Technological Crime Bulletin

            {http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/html/te-crime3.htm}. ………………………………..11 024

 

R. v. Weir [1998] A.J. No. 155 (QL). ………………………………………………11 026

 

 

VI.           SPAM ………………………………………………………………………..……11 043

             

            J. Hu, "TheGlobe.com Hosts Spam Debate" CNET News.com (2 July 1998)

            {http://www.news.com/News/Item0,4,23813,00.html?st.ne.ni.rel}. ……………...11 043

 

C. Macavinta - "Senate Passes Spam Regulation" CNET News.com (13 May

1998) {http://www.news.com/News/Item/0,4,22079,00.html?st.ne.ni.rel}. …...….11 045

 

Bill S 1618 IS, To amend the Communications Act of 1934 to improve the

protection of consumers against 'slamming' by tele-communications carriers,

and for other purposes, 2d  Sess., 105th Con. U.S.A. , 1998 {ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/thomas/c105/s1618.is.txt}. ……………………………..…..11 047

 

J.  Kornblum, "Hotmail stops spammers in court" CNET News.com (5 May 1998) {http://www.news.com/News/Item/0,4,21822,00.html?st.ne.ni.rel}……………....11 051

 

J. Kornblum, "Settlement in First Anti-Spam Law" CNET News.com (16 July

1998) {http://www.news.com/News/Item/0,4,24294,00.html?owv}. …………….11 052

 

1267632 Ontario Inv. v. Nexx Online Inc. [1999] O.J. 2246 (O.S.C.J.). …………11 054

 

CHAPTER TWELVE: COMPETITION POLICY IN THE

DIGITAL WORLD: THE MICROSOFT CASE STUDY

 

I.              INTRODUCTION ……………………..………………………………………….12 001

 

II.            COMPETITION AND THE LAW OF ANTITRUST …………….……………12 001

 

A.            ORIGINS AND OBJECTIVES OF ANTITRUST………………..…..12 001

J.H. Shenefield & I.M. Stelzer, The Antitrust Laws: A Primer, 3rd ed.

(Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1998)

pp. 5-14, {http://www.aei.org/4046-2.htm}. ……………….………….………….12 002

 

B.            THE ANTITRUST STATUTES ………………………….…………..12 007

 

1.   AMERICAN APPROACH …………………………………………….12 007

 

Shenefield & Stelzer, supra at 15-23, 131-36. …………………………...….12 008

 

2.       CANADIAN APPROACH …………………………………………....12 015

 

III.           MICROSOFT ON TRIAL ……………………………………………………...12 015

 

A.            BACKGROUND …………………………………………………….…12 015

 

“U.S. v. Microsoft: Special Report -- Timeline” Washington Post,

{http://washingtonpost…ss/longterm/microsoft/timeline.htm}. …………………12 017

 

B.            ANTITRUST ISSUES …………………………………….…………...12 022

 

    1.         MONOPOLIES AND MONOPOLISTIC BEHAVIOUR …………..12 022

 

E.G. Disner, “Microsoft: IBM Redux” Business Law Today

 (Sept./Oct. 1998) 8-15. ……..……………………………………………….……12 023 

 

D.J. Gifford, “Microsoft Corporation, The Justice Department, and Antitrust

Theory” (1996) 25 Southwestern University Law Review 621. …………..……..12 031

 

    2.         NETWORK EFFECTS …………………………………………….…12 056

 

W.A. Sheremata, “Barriers to Innovation: A Monopoly, Network

Externalities, and Speed of Innovation” (1997) 42 Antitrust Bull. 937. …………12 057

 

C.            ACTION AND REACTION ………………………………………….12 064

 

“Bill Gates Replies: Compete, Don’t Delete” The Economist (13 June 1998). …12 064

 

S. Levy, “The Microsoft Century” Newsweek (2 December 1998). …………..…12 068

 

D.                  RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ………………………………………..12 074

 

IV.           RECOMMENDED READINGS ……………………………………………….12 075

 

 

 

 

Section 3: Recommendations

Seminar Participants are asked to make any recommendations to improve the course materials.